Heating

The comfort of living in a country house largely depends on how well and smoothly its communications work. Residents can feel good only if light, heat, gas, hot and cold water are uninterruptedly supplied to the house. That is why the design of heating and other engineering systems is so important in the construction of private residential buildings.

For more than 12 years, he has been working on the Belarusian market of climate systems. We owe much of our success to our employees, who are true professionals with higher technical education. The close-knit team of engineers of the company has a unique experience in solving the most complex tasks and implementing large projects.

Initial data for drawing up a heating design plan

Heating design in residential buildings of any area - from several tens to several thousand square meters. Our employees will draw up a detailed project plan, which will indicate the diameter and materials for the manufacture of pipelines, types of shut-off and control valves, etc. We will also carry out all the necessary design work and install heating devices.

Heating design requires the preparation of a competent technical assignment. It should contain the following initial data:

  • the total heated (heated) area of the premises;
  • a detailed floor plan of the building with its sections;
  • features climatological conditions of the area in which the heating design is carried out 
  • a clear orientation of the building to the cardinal points;
  • floor material, type of floor construction (on logs or on the ground, with the obligatory indication of the thickness of the layers );
  • wall material and type of construction. Also, when designing heating, it is necessary to indicate the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the walls, their specific gravity and the thickness of the material layers (in cm); in cm);
  • type of roof structure, indicating its height and geometry. In addition, when designing heating, it is necessary to measure the thickness of the layers of the roof material (in cm), its specific gravity and thermal conductivity;
  • the geometric dimensions and type of window glazing (normal, binding or using double-glazed windows);
  • window sill height (from floor to window sill);
  • presence/absence of heating radiators;
  • floor material above floor heating pipes. It is necessary to indicate its specific gravity and coefficient of thermal conductivity and, of course, the thickness of the layers of the material.

 This is necessary because different coatings have different thermal resistance. Therefore, the design of heating in each specific case will be carried out differently;

  • material for the manufacture of underfloor heating pipelines;
  • material for the manufacture of pipelines;
  • places, in which heating risers are supposed to be laid;
  • purpose and functions of various rooms (required for designing heating and maintaining the required temperature);
  • room temperature;
  • measurement temperature;
  • selection of the heating system scheme;
  • type of heat supply source and heat carrier.

Heating system design

   The project of the building heating system consists of a text part and a set of drawings drawn up in strict accordance with the requirements of the current regulatory documentation. The set of drawings includes:

  • the layout of the terminal equipment in the design of heating, as well as heating mains and their elements;
  • a detailed diagram of the heating system and the main heating equipment;
  • service areas and overall dimensions of heating lines;
  • piping of thermal units, boilers and heating boilers, detailing of other heating equipment units, etc.

Also the project includes a so-called explanatory note containing the general characteristics of the heating system, a description of the specifics of convectors, fittings and other equipment used, tasks for related systems, etc.

Company specialists  when designing heating in the premises of a country house, cottage or any other object, the following main tasks are solved:

     Thermal engineering calculation of buildings gives a clear idea of whether you will have condensation on walls and windows, how much insulation you need to lay in the construction of the outer wall and roof, taking into account the mode of enclosing structures (degree of humidity), what design they should be, what windows and doors you can choose, how much heat you need to supply to the room to maintain a comfortable temperature, how much heat you need to heat the infiltrating air. What floor structure should be above an unheated room or driveway.

     Hydraulic calculation of heating systems is a separate stage. It is performed after selecting the system design and calculating the thermal loads. Hydraulic calculation determines the choice of the pump and the optimal diameter of the pipes for the circulation of the coolant. Accurate calculation eliminates the cost of oversized pipes and heating excess water (economic benefit).

      Explanatory note illuminates all decisions made when designing a heating system and describes the basic principles of control and regulation; 

       The routing of heating risers and pipelines allows in some cases to avoid the installation of control valves; 

       Selection and placement of collector units allows you to avoid excessive pressure differences when linking heating devices; 

       The connection diagram of the collector assembly changes depending on the heat transfer control scheme of the heaters; 

       The layout of underfloor heating pipelines by rooms allows you to optimize the heat flow to those places where it is needed and take into account comfort conditions. Also divide the floor into zones for better hydraulic balancing; 

       Scheme of underfloor heating is important when calculating the diameter and pitch of laying underfloor heating pipes; 

       Placement of temperature sensors (on a separate task) is of great importance when installing devices in niches or similar places where the sensors will not work correctly; 

       Specification of equipment and materials made in a specialized program includes all elements of the heating system;

       Compliance with the required indoor air temperatures in the premises, depending on the purpose of the room and the processes taking place in it;

       Development of a unified control system will reduce the cost of thermal energy and connect the heating system to the "Smart Home" system";

       Reducing the cost of operation and repair possible to achieve  if you do not clamp the system (allows you to choose a cheaper pump), arrange air release at the upper points of the system, arrange drainage of branches and risers at the lower points of the system, install fittings in easily accessible places, maintain only the temperature in the premises that is necessary for the normal operating conditions of the building;

       Use of equipment from a single supplier allows you to simplify the search for a supplier, simplify repairs, get all the information in one place;

       Reducing the cost of upgrading or increasing capacity possible if it is foreseen at the design stage;

       Technical and economic comparison of options heating systems allow you to choose the best price-quality option;

       Development of safety issues related to heating systems allows you to avoid burns and deterioration of heat transfer of devices.

Our specialists in the process of designing a heating system achieve its correct integration with other engineering systems to ensure the coordinated operation of the entire complex of climatic and other engineering systems. The designed system can operate under the control of the "Smart Home" system. As a result, you get a modern controlled heating system with a climate control function.
During the design process, we offer our customers only modern technological solutions that will be relevant throughout the entire life of the heating system. We pay special attention to the use of energy-saving technologies in heating.

The created heating systems are very ergonomic - heating control devices are located in easily accessible places during design, which makes it easy to control the indoor climate.

In addition to meeting the requirements for ergonomics, when designing heating systems, our specialists also comply with the requirements of designers and architects for aesthetics, so that radiators, convectors and other end devices of the heating system fit seamlessly into the design of any room in your house, cottage , apartment or office.
In the design process, the personal wishes of the customer must be taken into account.

The project of the heating system includes a text part and a set drawings in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documentation.

The volume of design documentation, i.e. heating project, includes:


    to create a heating project are developed:
  • cover and title page;
  • table of initial data for designing a heating system;
  • basic technical solutions for heating systems (summary);
  • calculations are made , not included in the project documentation:
    • performing a heat engineering calculation (determining the heat loss of a building);
    • calculating the power of heating devices;
    • hydraulic calculation of heating mains and their elements;
    • calculation of the main heating equipment (boilers, boilers, etc.);
  • main set of drawings:
    • location of terminal equipment (heating devices and consoles);
    • placement of heating mains and their elements;
    • zones of operation and maintenance of the main heating equipment;
    • detailing of the nodes of the main heating equipment connection (piping of boilers, boilers and heating units);
    • structural diagram of the main heating equipment;
    • detailing of the nodes of the final heating equipment system (drawing manifold cabinets, detailing the boiler room and chimneys, connecting heaters );
    • overall dimensions (diameters) and service areas of heating pipes;
    • notes for the installation of the heating system;
    • diagrams of the heating system;
    • explanatory note:
      • table of the heat demand of the building by systems;
      • characteristics of the heating system (dimensions, energy consumption, etc.);
      • design of heating system automation;
    • assignment to adjacent systems (integration table);
    • specification of heating equipment with details;
    • coordination of design decisions with architects and designers.

    The heating project according to State Standards, SNIPs, TKP, SNB is an exact designation of heating equipment and mat rials, with bindings and sizes, with nodes and intersections, accurately reflects the installation of devices, with axonometry, all calculations, explanations and specifications. 

    All tasks solved in the design of heating systems are reflected in design documentation for this system. 

    The technical solutions adopted in the working drawings comply with the requirements of environmental, sanitary and hygienic, fire safety and other applicable norms and rules and ensure the safe operation of the facility for human life and health, subject to activities provided for by the working drawings.

For those houses that have more than one, as a rule, they use a type of single-pipe heating system with top wiring and laying of a supply pipeline in the attic, from which parallel vertical risers extend down to supply water to radiators. They must be on different floors strictly one to the other. At the same time, the temperature of the water in the supply pipeline is the same at the entry point to any descending riser, i.e., the temperature change occurs already in the risers themselves. When used with vertical risers, all heaters are connected to a common riser, regardless of which floor they are located on. Compared to two-pipe, single-pipe water heating systems have a more aesthetic appearance and a small estimated cost. But they can only be arranged in those houses where there is an attic, because this makes it possible to mount a system with an upper wiring.

Two-pipe water heating distribution systems

Such a < em>water heating distribution system is the most common. In this case, two pipes (direct and return) are suitable for each heater. The first serves to supply heated water to the heater, and the second to drain the cooled water.

The pipeline can be installed in several ways:
device from a common pipeline. In this case, both the direct and return pipes leading to and from the boiler branch into as many parts as there are heaters installed in the house;
2) in the form of a loop. In this case, the direct and return pipes sequentially bypass a number of heaters. When using this form of wiring, heaters located closer to the boiler have a more advantageous position, because they get hotter water. So that the temperature difference is not too large, the pipe cross-section increases as it approaches the boiler.

The disadvantage of a two-pipe system is the pressure loss in each hydraulic circuit (corresponding to each radiator), which increases with distance from the water heater (boiler). To ensure the same pressure, special measures must be taken.

Two-pipe systems come with a dead-end and associated movement of water in the mains.

A system with a dead-end movement of water is similar to a single-pipe vertical system. The exception is that the radiators on each floor are connected in parallel between the inlet and outlet risers. The dead-end system has two circulation rings of different lengths: one of them (short) passes through the riser closest to the boiler, the other (long) through the riser furthest from the boiler.

A two-pipe system with associated water movement has all the advantages of two-pipe systems in general. At the same time, it is devoid of the disadvantage associated with the inequality of pressure drops inherent in a system with dead-end water movement. In this case, hot water from the water heater passes through a supply pipeline of decreasing size to the pipes, then to the heating devices, and from them it enters the return pipeline, which runs parallel to the supply pipeline in the direction of the water heater. The pipeline collects the water leaving the radiators and increases in diameter to the last radiator. At the same time, the length of the path traversed by water is the same for all radiators.

The engineer offers a full range of equipment from leading European and domestic manufacturers and provides post-warranty service for facilities.

The history of the development of heating systems is characterized not only by the invention of new systems, but also by the return to the use of those systems that were previously used, but were forgotten over time. This is due to the creation of new equipment, materials and changes in operating conditions.

Heating systems are divided according to the following indicators:

  • with top and bottom connections;
  • vertical and horizontal;
  • one-pipe or two-pipe;
  • dead-end or associated.

When heating rooms with radiators, there is always a choice: either install small radiators and increase heat transfer from them, increasing temperature of the coolant (high-temperature heating), or, on the contrary, try to increase the size of the radiator with the same heat output, but in return get a lower temperature of its surface (low-temperature heating).
If the heating is high-temperature, the radiators are hot and it is impossible to touch them. This is uneconomical and such a system has no control margin. In addition, if the temperature on the radiator is high, organic dust begins to decompose, which, as a rule, is present in any room. The products of this decomposition are released into the air and inhaled by people in the room.
With low-temperature heating, the radiators are slightly warm, but the room is also warm. It is comfortable, safe and saves money. Studies have shown that the most comfortable heating temperature for a person is 37 degrees.

What are heating devices

Radiators- by their design, they have a relatively large volume and constantly contain a lot of hot coolant. Due to this, they give off heat mainly in the form of radiation (fireplace effect).
Convectors - they give off heat mainly due to air circulation through them. The coolant moves along the convector pipe, heating the surfaces of the accordion put on it. The air passes through the convector from the bottom up, heating up from numerous warm surfaces.
There are heaters that combine the properties of radiators and convectors (these are heaters type Henrad, Korado, Kermi, DeLonghi), their flat storage panels receive a large mass of warm water and, at the same time, they have ribbed surfaces. They combine both heat transfer options - radiation and convection.
Further, all heating equipment, regardless of the heat transfer method, will be called radiators, it's easier.

< h2>What kind of heating equipment is there?

Radiators are cast iron, aluminum, stamped steel and so-called bimetallic.

  • Cast iron - give off heat well and resist rust, can withstand fairly high pressure in the system, but they are heavy and do not always meet modern design requirements.
  • Aluminum - light, have high heat dissipation, beautiful, but quite expensive and sometimes can not withstand high pressure in the system.
  • < em>Bimetallic - consist of a steel pipe through which the coolant must move, and an aluminum housing. The steel pipe can withstand high pressure, and the aluminum sections easily dissipate heat. Such radiators have appeared recently.
  • Stamped steel - are optimal in price, have high heat transfer. They are currently the most popular. Radiators of this type, produced by different companies, have a common standard and are similar in appearance. These radiators are made from high quality cold rolled steel. They consist of two or three flat panels, into which the coolant enters, and ribbed surfaces between them, heated by the panels. The ribbed surfaces are arranged so that the vertical air flow freely passes between them. Large warm panels give off heat mainly due to radiation, and ribbed surfaces - due to convection. Such radiators are available with bottom connection and side connection.
    with bottom connection are more aesthetic and easy to install. Radiators of this type also have a built-in thermostatic valve, on which you can install a thermostat that automatically maintains the desired temperature in the room.

You can get more detailed information from our managers.

When heating rooms with radiators, there is always a choice: either install small radiators and increase heat transfer from them, increasing the temperature of the coolant (high-temperature heating ), or, on the contrary, try to increase the size of the radiator with the same heat transfer, but in return get a lower temperature of its surface (low-temperature heating).


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