Two methods of air humidification have practical application: isothermal and adiabatic.

Adiabatic air humidification

 occurs with a constant amount of heat. As the relative humidity of the air increases, its temperature decreases. A thin water aerosol enters the air, which subsequently evaporates. The phase transition of water from a liquid to a vapor state is carried out due to internal heat transfer from the air, as a result of which its temperature decreases. When spraying 1 liter of water from the surrounding air, about 590 kcal of energy is absorbed.

Isothermal air humidification

 occurs at a constant temperature. When the relative humidity of the air increases, its temperature remains unchanged. Saturated steam enters the air directly. The phase transition of water from liquid to vaporous state is carried out due to an external heat source.

Isothermal air humidification is easier to implement in hardware, but has a much larger energy consumption, which is associated with the need to compensate for the latent heat of water evaporation during vaporization due to external sources. Generation of 10 kg of moisture requires 7.25 kWh of electricity. Adiabatic humidification is an order of magnitude more economical, since the process of vaporization occurs due to internal energy sources, and external energy consumption is associated only with overcoming the forces of surface tension of water during its spraying. In this case, the generation of 10 kg of moisture requires 0.7 kWh of electricity.
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